To better serve domestic and foreign translators and to improve Chinese-English translation in China, the Academy of Contemporary China and World Studies along with China Academy of Translation, both under the guidance of China International Publishing Group, have co-drafted this glossary. The terms and phrases are collected from key speeches delivered by General Secretary Xi Jinping and major decisions and action plans of the CPC Central Committee, in 2019. They also include new concepts, areas and expressions found in documents from CPC and Chinese government conferences. The more than 420 terms are arranged in eight subjects: politics, economy, culture, society, eco-civilization, foreign and military affairs, poverty alleviation, and science and technology.
The English translation of the terms has been reviewed and approved by the Expert Committee on Major Translation Projects of the Translators Association of China under the Coordination Mechanism for Key Translation Tasks of the China Academy of Translation. We now present the glossary, complete in Chinese and English, as areference for translators and others working in relevant fields.
The glossary is also one of the many outcomes of the Research on the Standardized Translation of Terms with Chinese Characteristics, which aims to improve the translation of key terms in contemporary China, provide support for translators and the translation industry, and better tell China’s stories to the outside world. Moreover, we hope it will help foreigners understand China’s ideas, policies, and development path, make Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era better known outside China, and present to the world an accurate, multi-dimensional, and panoramic view of China.
The advance of the Chinese nation toward rejuvenation is unstoppable.
the unified multi-ethnic Chinese nation
to uphold the great unity of the Chinese nation
a sense of belonging for the Chinese nation
to modernize the national governance system and capacity
to concentrate strength for major undertakings
to uphold and improve the fundamental, basic and important systems that underpin the system of socialism with Chinese characteristics
to solidify the foundation, leverage our strengths and tackle areas of weaknesses
to improve governance with laws and regulations, systematic and comprehensive measures, and an emphasis on addressing problems at the source
to improve governance with complete laws and regulations, systematic and comprehensive measures and an emphasis on addressing the root causes of issues
to turn the strengths of China’s state systems into efficient state governance
to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of governance by taking advantage of China’s institutional strengths
a system that ensures CPC members’ commitment to the Party’s original aspiration and founding mission
the system that ensures CPC members’ continued commitment to CPC’s founding mission
the system of overall leadership by the CPC
to improve the institutions for governance for the people and supported by the people
the system of CPC-led multiparty cooperation and political consultation
to improve the system through which people’s congresses oversee the government, the supervisory commissions, the people’s courts and the people’s procuratorates
the supervision system of “One government, One commission, Two courts“ (referring to the people’s government, the supervisory commission, and the people’s court and the people’s procuratorate)
a new model of political party relations
to build a united front with extensive social participation
to build the united front with extensive participation of all political parties
the system of regional ethnic autonomy
the system of community-level self-governance
a scientific approach to law making, strict law enforcement, impartial administration of justice, and common compliance with the law
legislation by the people’s congresses under the leadership of CPC committees, with government support and broad participation
to serve the people, answer to the people, and be scrutinized by the people
to build a digital government
the institutions of vertical national management and tiered local management
to establish a fiscal relationship between the central and local governments built upon clearly defined powers and responsibilities, with appropriate financial resource allocation and great balance between regions
a new system concentrating nationwide effort and resources on key national undertakings
the fundamental system which ensures that Marxism guides all our ideological work
the fundamental system which ensures that Marxism serves as our political guidance
systems and mechanisms ensuring that officials do not dare, are not able, and ultimately have no desire to becorrupt
authoritative and efficient mechanisms for implementation
“four forms” of discipline supervision and enforcement
to maintain close ties with the people
unremitting efforts to correct the “fourforms of decadence” (the practice of favoring form over substance, bureaucratism,hedonism, and extravagance)
unremitting efforts to correct the “fourforms of official misconduct” (the practice of favoring form over substance,bureaucratism, hedonism, and extravagance)
to promote the in-depth integration of Party development and daily work
confidence in our path, theory, system, and culture
profound changes unseen in a century
The landscape here is beyond compare.
the system of distinctively Chinese socialist rule of law
the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic of China
the CPC’s leadership over the CPPCC
to have an accurate understanding of the nature of the CPPCC
to give full play to CPPCC’s role as aspecial consultative body
in-depth reform of Party and state institutions
to continue to improve the functional systemof Party and state institutions and modernize the state governance system and capacity
to promote the functional optimization, collaboration, and efficiency of the state institutions
to coordinate all efforts to complete key national undertakings
to guard against and defuse major risks
The Party is in charge of the media.
The CPC exercises leadership over the media.
We must carry forward the fighting spiritand improve our abilities.
to arm ourselves with theory
the system of responsibility for Party development
the centralized and unified leadership ofthe Party
to build a country, government, and society based on the rule of law
the path of law-based governance under Chinese socialism
to secure a sweeping victory in the fight against corruption
“taking out tigers,” “swatting flies,” and “hunting down foxes”
to have the courage to carry out self-reform
to conduct strict self-supervision and self-governance on the Party
Learning ability is the top priority skill that leading officials must possess.
the principal status of the people
the principal position of the people
the primacy of the people
the 40th anniversary of China’s reform and opening up
Opinions on strengthening and improving the Party development in central Party and state departments
the Party’s leadership over law-based governance
to regard the Party Constitution as the fundamental guideline
to settle minor problems in the villages,major ones in the towns, and not submitting them to higher-level authorities
Long March of the new era
The People’s Republic has a revolutionary tradition.
The people’s support is the strongest foundation for our Party’s governance.
national major projects
Never call retreat until a complete victory.
China has stood up, become prosperous and is growing strong.
China has stood up, grown prosperous and is becomingstrong.
The Medal of the Republic
The Friendship Medal
New officials must continue to meet the commitment undertaken by their predecessors.
Selective and arbitrary law enforcement is unacceptable.
to become pacesetters for reform and opening up
to enhance our Party’s political awareness as the overarching principle
to enhance our Party’s political foundation building as the overarching principle
to reinforce our Party’s political foundations as the overarching principle
to address human rights issues in a fair, objective, and non-selective manner
to establish a government service evaluation system
to improve conduct to make solid and tangible efforts
to strengthen leadership teams and the contingent of officials
“black swans” and “gray rhinos”
the policies of “one country, two systems,”、 “the people of Hong Kong governing Hong Kong,”、“the people of Macao governing Macao,” and a high degree of autonomy for bothregions
The authority of the Constitution and the Basic Law is firmly upheld in Macao.
smooth operation of the (Macao SAR) executive-led political system
to integrate more proactively into the country’s overall development
to ensure the central authorities exercise overall jurisdiction while correctly exercising a high degree of autonomy (in Macao)
the State Security Safeguarding Committee of the Macao Special Administrative Region
sound decision-making, meticulous social governance, and efficient public services
to consolidate the social and political foundation for “one country, two systems”
to have firm confidence in “one country, two systems”
to firmly keep “one country, two systems” in the correct direction
to resolutely shoulder the mission of “one country, two systems”
to consolidate the basis, foster vitality, and achieve steady development
The cause of “one country, two systems” still has a long way to go.
no finger-pointing from any external forces
to improve the governance in the Special Administrative Region of…
to improve the overall living conditions in Macao
The Taiwan question will definitely end with national rejuvenation.
We Chinese should not fight each other.
The affairs of us Chinese must be decided by ourselves.